Privacy of every person is protected. Therefore, Georgian Charter of Journalistic Ethics principle 10 distinguishes this – “Journalists must pay respect to privacy, and not intrude into the private lives of people unless there is special public interest” The right to have personal life gives everyone, including public figures, the ability to protect their personal life from others’ unwanted attention, not to publicize the details related to their health, personal relationships, etc. Privacy is a wide concept and does not have a precise definition.

Maintaining balance between releasing personal details in case of public interest and protecting privacy is a challenge and responsibility of media.

1. Public interest

Violation of privacy by a journalist is approved only in case of public interest existing in the topic, when the released material can bring more good to the society than bring the damage to one person. This is the difference between public interest and public curiosity. Public interest exists about the topics including:
  • Systemic crime of the government
  • Improper expenditure of public money
  • Crime committed by officials
  • Public healthcare
  • Environment
  • National security
  • Uncovering important crime, etc.
This list can never be complete and is dependent upon the case. The higher the value of the information for the public, the lower importance is given to privacy issues and vice versa. Journalist has to think about the public interest aim – is it aimed at the problem which will be uncovered by releasing the information or is it aimed at the life of a person depicted in the information. Violating privacy can be approved in the first case only. The more intimate is the information, the stronger the argument of the journalist needs to be. When violating the privacy there can be two arguments:

  1. A person agreed to make the information public;
  2. The reason why the personal information was made public is detailed.

1.1. Agreement

  • Reporting about personal details is agreeable when the person gave his permission to do so. Be sure, that the respondent is aware of what he is agreeing on. If there are several people in the material, get the permission from all of them. In other case, specify which ones did not give you an agreement;
  • People in public space should not have an expectancy that their life will be as protected as in their own home or in their property, but in public spaces there are cases when the privacy can be protected. For example, if a person had health problems in public space;
  • When talking about antisocial behavior, illness or any other negative context material, you cannot use close-up, accidental photos of a person taken in public space. The responsibility is higher in places such as hospitals, schools, prisons, emergencies… in this case you need double agreement – one from the institution and the second from the respondent, other persons in the place. Agreement is not necessary if you don’t identify the people.
  • Video recording can be made without agreement in semi-public places, but the owner can ask you to stop the recording. Semi-public places are for example shopping centers, airports, places which belong to a private person, but are open for the society. Minors younger than 16 have higher privacy protection. Information about them needs to be approved by their guardian. Children who became interest figures by their actions, for example are singers, sportsmen, winners in a competition, are also protected. You cannot take an interview with them in public space without their guardian’s permission. For more information see the guidelines about reporting on children’s issues.
  • A journalist needs to be careful using the information depicting personal life which was published on social media. In this case, it’s better to get the agreement from the one who posted it; for more, see the guidelines on using social media

1.2. Argumentation

If there is no agreement from the person, think about these: 
  • What and who are you uncovering with this material?
  • How will this information support the discussion important to society?
  • Can you show the problem fully without these details? What additional information does the material give?
  • What damage will a person take by publication of his personal information?
  • Is the public interest satisfaction worth the damage done to the person?
  • What alternate ways are there to report the issue?
You must consider whether the publication of personal information will make a person stigmatized, ostracizes, discriminated against. Think about what will the consequences of publication be, for example danger of physical revenge, etc. Give the audience arguments with proof on why you decided to publicize private information.

2. Secret video/audio recording

Secret recording is: 

  • Recording with hidden recorder, camera;
  • Recording with any equipment (camera, mobile phone, etc.) when the person is not aware of this;
  • Recording phone calls with the aim of publishing it without respondent’s agreement;
  • Starting or continuing recording when the respondent thinks that it has not begun yet or it is already finished.
  • Hidden recording with the aim of getting information is possible, but must be published only when the media proves that here was no open way of getting this information and they had to show it;
  • Entering private property and hidden recording can be used in high public interest situations and this must be proven;
  • Hidden recordings for entertainment and comedic shows can be released when the participants are informed; be careful when using other people’s recording, recordings of observation cameras, operative materials.

3. Public and private figures

  • Public figure for media has a wider definition and includes everyone who has a function for public life in any field, for example politics, economy, culture, sports… public figures, especially politicians, high level officials (government workers), should have lower expectancy of privacy. But to some degree they also have the right to protect their personal life from other people. For example, their relationships, their health is private, if it does not attract public interest, which can be in case of improper use of public money for private relationships and treatment, etc.
  • Interest in public figures’ life does not automatically mean that their family members, especially minors, have to be reported on as much. Their personal lives are more protected than that of their parents’.

4. Sensitive issues of private life

There are issues which can be more sensitive, as there is higher risk of improper violation of privacy. These issues include topics such as health, sexual life, adoption, surrogacy.

4.1. Health

  • Information about health and sexual life has higher protection than others. Reporting these is always a privacy violation. Therefore, there needs to be especially high public interest and the reporter should get through either of two steps – person’s agreement or argumentation;
  • The health topic reporting can also damage other people, because it creates distrust and they might abstain from getting treatment.

4.2. Accidents, crime

  • It is vital to maintain balance between public interest and reporting on details about people who were in accidents. Showing close-ups of people who are injured, suffering, and in shock is approved when this shows the scale of happened tragedy, is needed for showing context and fully covering the issue. While working live, the media has to try not to focus on suffering of specific people.
  • Media has to think about whether the repeated showing of horrific image will cause re-traumatization. Try to minimize re-traumatization of close people to the deceased and survivors. It is necessary to get the permission to record funerals of private figures.
  • Media needs to refrain from releasing the information from the private life of victims, accused and other people involved in the case, that does not relate to the case;
  • Journalists can stay near the home of accused as long as they wish, in the public place, for example the road, and not at the front door, whether the accused is a public figure or not; For more, see the “Guideline of reporting on crime”
  • It is not advisable to show photo/video materials which depict difficult emotional state of people in the courtroom.
PDF Version Social media has become an integral part of the contemporary journalism, both in terms of finding and dissemination of information. The following recommendations are based on the editorial documents of international media, press council codes,


A terror act is an action that aims to spread terror, fear and chaos in the population. Its spread often depends on the messages and images that the media uses while covering it. Terrorism needs publicity to spread its ideology within the society. Media is one of the best means for achieving this goal. That is why they try to get into the daily agenda to spread their messages with the frame that suits them. Terrorist groups not only know how to operate necessary equipment, video cameras, sound equipment and internet, but also have vast knowledge of the media effect and techniques that they can use to attract the attention of the media. Tragedy and shocking news sell well in media, which is why there’s always the temptation to spread terrorist messages. In such cases the media is an accomplice to sharing terrorist ideas. Using media as an instrument is not the only tactic the terrorists use. Quite often the journalists themselves are the targets, they become victims, used as negotiation tools. Following rules will help the media with covering subjects affiliated with terrorism, choosing correct angles or terms.

General Principles:

  • The population has the right to receive information on terrorism and possible threats, although the media has the responsibility not to become an affiliate to spreading terrorist messages and appeals.
  • Terrorist acts and any related news should be covered accurately and fully, using related terminology and with great care.
  • Affiliating a negative action to the ethnic background or religious belief of individuals participating in it is irrelevant. Such information will only further the negative stereotypes and assist the stigmatization. Instead show the full picture and underline the fact that the religious or ethnic backgrounds have no relation to terrorism. Show expert and analyst evaluations, statistics and other related information, that will help to see the problem fully.
  • When covering terrorism related news, it’s important to maintain balance to not cause panic in the population by over-inflating the news, but so that the population still receives full information at the same time.
  • In case if the situation is escalating and there’s a chance of discrimination against any specific group, the media has to start a discussion on discrimination and the risks related to it. It’s recommended to show the examples of cooperation between opposite sides.
  • A neutral tone should be used when covering news. Avoid separating the population into “us” and “them” groups.
  • Members of a terroristic organization should not be covered as heroes. Do not attribute them features that would show them as “brave warriors”, as that may cause positive outlooks on their actions, especially in youth groups. Terrorism should be covered as a criminal act, in relation to legislation and law enforcement.
  • Big part of the coverage should not involve the leaders of terrorist organizations, their ways of life, goals and actions. This may cause a positive outlook on them.
  • Do not describe a terrorist act (suicide) in details, it should not turn into an instruction.
  • Do not cover anti-terrorist or self-defense action in detail, as that may cause a change of plans in radical groups and operation failures.
  • The population should receive information on the sources of received information. They should understand what the journalist’s information is based on.
  • Personal lives and other human rights must be kept at all times.
  • In case of spreading incorrect information, the audience must be notified of it and a correction must be issued immediately.
  • When covering subjects related to terrorism on web-pages, it is recommended to use comment moderation or turning the comment function off completely in order to avoid the intensification of radicalism.


  • When covering terrorist acts, it is important to employ a journalistic language that is free of judgement. It is better to describe the facts in a dry manner; the media should not use overly emotional words and evaluations. It is important for the term “terrorist” to be used accordingly and not become a label, which may damage the reputation of the media source.
  • It is better if the media uses more precise words to describe the event instead of “terrorist act”, for example “explosion”, “bombing”, “shooting”, “opened fire”, “gunman”, “kidnapper”, “assailant”, etc.
  • Journalists should make the process of perceiving information as easy as possible, thus they should not use language/terminology of other people to convey information.
  • Journalists should not substitute the word “terrorist” when it is mentioned in the quote of the respondent, it must be visible that the source is the one using the word. Journalists themselves should generally avoid using that word, not because the journalist is impartial or sympathizes with terrorism, but because it is a complex subject, with important political subtexts. When covering events like these, both sides expect that the media will be objective. The word “Terrorist”, “Terrorist organization” makes the impartiality of the media questionable.
  • Often, during explosions or other tragic events, it is very clear that it may be a terror act, but the media still should avoid the usage of that term, in order to let the audience evaluate the event for themselves. It is important for the journalist to ask themselves if using the word “terrorist” is objective, do we know for a fact that we’re dealing with terrorist? Or is it only our doubts… are we maybe making a political stance when using that word?

  • Visual materials with terrorist contents is often attractive to the media, as violence implies emotions, tragedy and attracts more attention. Which is why it’s important for the media to have information on the event depicted in the materials.
  • The Media should treat the effects of spreading terrorist video materials with high respect. Respect means to: o Not spread terrorist calls to action and aims; o Not violate the privacy of people, thus causing them more grief, especially to victims and their relatives.
  • Video materials should be edited in order to avoid the manipulation of population’s opinions.
  • The media should think through the political and ethical subtexts, that may be involved with airing such video materials. By constantly airing materials that contain violent visuals, eventually it will cause the normalization of such events in the population.
  • It is absolutely unacceptable to publish photo/video materials filmed at different time without specifying it, in order to intensify current events.
  • The media should treat materials submitted by readers or found on social media with utmost care. The origins of such materials should be checked carefully in order to avoid misinformation.

When covering topics relevant to terrorism, the media should be able to maintain a balance between:

  • Freedom of speech and giving a platform to terrorism;
  • Spreading graphic video materials and relative context;
  • Own opinions and impartiality;
  • Market demands and professional responsibility;
  • Societal pressure, that calls for action and justice, that dictates to limit actions, in order to report the whole event;
  • Showing the pluralism of opinions and maintaining a general policy against terrorism.
These are the dilemmas that a journalist will face during any specific event and they must make a corresponding decision.

“The will of the people shall be the basis of the authority of government; this will shall be expressed in periodic and genuine elections…”
(The Universal Declaration of Human Rights)

We believe that mass media plays a crucial role during elections in providing access for political contestants to communicate their messages and in presenting news about political parties, political leaders and matters of political importance is vital to the integrity of the electoral process. A partisan presentation of facts or omission of important opinions significantly reduces the quality of reporting. An unbalanced news item is not only inaccurate but also biased because it offers a distorted, partisan and confusing view of affairs or issues.

We believe that a political subject should not misuse the media to disseminate false information for the sake of its own promotion. This could seriously undermine public confidence in elections and any government ascending to power using such methods is questionable. Ultimately, this increases division between politicians and citizens who naturally grow skeptical since the loss of confidence in a political entity can make them turn their backs on politics as such.

We believe that while all democratic countries apply slightly different criteria to the behavior of print, broadcast and online media outlets, the basic concepts concerning the quality of journalists’ work are the same. In this respect, it is important to stress the important role of self-regulatory measures by journalists themselves, regardless of the type of the media.

We believe that the public broadcaster has to observe even more rigorous criteria than other media since it belongs to all citizens. Using public media to promote a certain political party or candidate should therefore be considered as an illegitimate manipulation with the public property. Citizens are entitled to insist on fairness, balance and impartiality and make sure that the government’s attitude towards the media will ensure their access to information to which they are entitled.

We believe that while private media’s status is different from that of the public one, they should also provide fair, balanced and unbiased information about election campaigns. Managers and owners of respective media outlets thus take upon themselves a certain amount of responsibility for media broadcasting, resulting from the fact that broadcast frequencies are considered public property serving public needs.

Taking into consideration the above-mentioned principles we, media managers, on behalf of the Georgian media outlets, decided to accept and comply with the principles stipulated by the Media Code of Conduct during Elections, prepared by the Georgian Charter of Journalistic Ethics on the basis of the domestic legislation, international documents and self-regulatory principles.

Media Code of Conduct During Elections

To ensure free and democratic elections as well as to avoid undesirable polarization of the society and to promote good and responsible journalism, , we, the signatory parties, pledge to:
  • Accept and comply with the principles of the Code
  • Accept the fact that freedom of expression and information are vital for a democratic society and inevitable for its progress and application of other human rights and basic liberties
  • Accept provision of completeness of information and plurality of opinions throughout an election campaign
  • Accept the fact that identification of all expressions of bias is the hallmark of journalistic professionalism
I. Journalistic Independence

  1. Media will observe the principles of journalistic ethics, objectivity and editorial independence.
  2. Above all, journalists have a committement in front of the public and not in front of state authorities.
  3. In fact, the authorities shall refrain from interfering in the workings of the media and, when necessary, they shall impose positive measures to promote pluralism of the media and to protect them from attacks and undue pressures.
  4. The basic principle of ethical thinking about journalism consists in necessity to differentiate bewtween news and opinions. A piece of news is information about facts and data, whereas opinion implies thoughts, ideas, faith or on the part of the companies running the media.
  5. The principle of freedom of speech implies that journalists, editors, producers and media owners take responsibility for the content and form as well as consequences they entail.
  6. Media will resist potential outside and inside pressures leading to doctoring or adjusting stories which might favour or disfavour political entities or themselves. Media managers and owners will not exert pressure on their employees to act at variance with these principles.
  7. A journalist has a right to participate in building a story or refuse to participate therein provided it is at variance with his/her conscience.
II. Balance and Impartiality

  1. In their election newscasts the media will adopt a balanced and impartial attitude. When offering their broadcast time, they won’t resort to either positive or negative discrimination against any of the candidates or political parties. This obligation also implies that hosts and journalists participating in the process of shaping programs providing news and information will uphold impartiality.
  2. Balance is a proportionate representation and portrayal of the politically relevant opinions of the parties involved, which are essential for grasping a concrete event or issue in particular situations, thus no party or opinion is offered inappropriate presentation in terms of space, broadcast time or portrayal with respect to its relevance to the problem at hand even in cases in which some of the opinions fail to coincide with those of a journalist working on the story.
  3. The media will refuse all open or furtive expressions of intolerance and will consider thoughtfully if publication of such expressions is not conducive to defamation and ridicule based on sex, race, color, language, faith and religion, affiliation with national or ethnic minority or ethnic group, social difference, political or other opinion.
  4. The media serves as a forum for exchange of opinions, public debate, confrontation and criticism, offering the general public a chance to gain a better understanding of opinions presented by individual candidates and political parties. The media accepts that without important facts, no piece of information is complete.
III. Accuracy and Relevance

  1. The media will provide accurate, fair, and undistorted information on election candidates.
  2. The media will ensure that every piece of news will only contain facts corresponding to reality and whose veracitywill be verified by independent sources quoted therein.
  3. The media will avoid adjusting data and facts in a manner that would distort reality and in determining the order of importance of the individual pieces of information it will impartially and objectively provide, distinguishing between relevant and irrelevant information.
  4. The media will not manipulate picture or sound so that the choice of words or other means of expression, change in tone, shift of stress or editing will not deliberately displace the meaning or value of the message.
  5. In publishing opinion polls the media will present results in an unbiased manner and will publish all the available information, especially that related to the organization conducting the opinion poll, about the size of the characteristic sample of population and the time when the poll was carried out.
IV. Fairness and Credibility

  1. Media will choose criteria for offering time or space to political parties in their politically relevant programmes. If an addressed party refuses to comment on an issue at hand, or all attempts to contact the person fail, it has to be mentioned in the news item.
  2. Journalists, editors, producers and proprietors will spare no effort to make the distributed information correspond with truth and conscience. The facts should be mediated without any distortions and in their respective contexts. If a flawed message is published it should be followed by an immediate apology.
  3. The Facts should be presented in the most objective manner and in the right context, without distortions and holding back related information and with an appropriate creativity of journalists.
  4. News headlines and summaries have to be most pertinent in expressing the essence of published facts and data. If editorial comments are broadcast in news programs it is vital to broadcast opinions of the party that had been referred to.
  5. The media will be consistent in separating the activities of the incumbent representatives of administration and self-government from the activities they pursue as the representatives of political parties running in the election.
In formulating this Code, we used a number of international documents and guidelines, with special attention to recommendations of the Council of Europe, OSCE and UN, i.e. international institutions of which Georgia is a member state. Georgia has an ambition to become a respected member of the family of developed democratic countries and we think that the media can comply with the criteria constituting a natural component of election campaigns in developed democracies. Compliance with the above-mentioned provisions will be observed by the media themselves, international media experts and, most importantly, Georgian citizens who will be offered a unique opportunity to assess which of the media outlets best provides them with unbiased, balanced and objective information about election campaigning